The National Wild Turkey Federation was formed in 1973 to help restore wild turkeys. Thanks to the efforts of state/federal/provincial agencies, corporations, private landowners, and passionate NWTF volunteers and staff, wild turkey populations throughout North America have been restored from a historic low of about 200,000 to nearly 6.5 million birds today. The NWTF’s Save the Habitat. Save the Hunt. initiative is now focused on maintaining those healthy, sustainable and huntable wild turkey populations for generations to come. An important part of doing that is active habitat management, which includes the use of prescribed burning or prescribed fire.
Wild turkey populations in the Southeast have seen exponential growth since the early days of trap and transfer. They quickly filled unused habitat and hunters became accustomed to seeing, hearing and tagging many birds each spring. In recent years, however, wild turkey reproduction and harvest numbers across the Southeast have stabilized or are declining, which is cause for concern among NWTF staff, our state and federal agency partners, and researchers alike. The NWTF has been working collaboratively since 2011 with our partners, focusing on research, standardization of data collection, and increasing active habitat management across broad landscapes to determine the cause of the decline and to turn the tide. Based on current research and the thoughts of most wildlife professionals, the general consensus is that these declines are primarily a direct result of poor or suboptimal wild turkey habitat that is not actively managed.
Unfortunately, many blame poor reproduction and observed declines in hunter harvest on the use of prescribed fire, particularly burns conducted during the growing season, which coincides with the spring nesting season for wild turkeys. While the loss of wild turkey nests to prescribed fire is a legitimate concern, a majority of wild turkey research shows very few turkey nests are lost directly because of springtime burns. Research suggests that hens prefer nesting in areas that have been burned within the past two years and not in high numbers in unburned areas because the habitat is too thick. For the few nests that are lost due to habitat management activity, predation, or even weather-related events, it’s important to note that hens may re-nest up to three times.
Prescribed fire greatly improves nesting and brood-rearing habitat, both population-wide benefits that exceed the small-scale loss of individual nests. When conducting active management over a large area, wildlife managers must have a vision for how the work they are doing today leads to the ideal conditions for plant and animal populations to thrive in the future. Prescribed fire is one of the primary tools used to create and improve habitat for wild turkeys and other species that depend on young-growth, or early successional habitat. Without fire, the least expensive and most efficient management tool we have available, maintaining current turkey populations would be much more difficult and expensive. As such, the NWTF strongly supports the use of prescribed fire to achieve habitat management objectives that will create ideal habitat for wild turkeys.
In general, smaller-sized burns, on a 2-3 year frequency, with a mix of timing between dormant and growing seasons are best for wild turkeys because this technique creates a true mosaic of habitat in various stages of growth. That is a best-case scenario, but one that many land managers cannot realistically implement or maintain. Private landowners typically have the most authority and latitude on how they use prescribed fire on their own lands; however, most state and federal agencies must consider multiple users and objectives for the properties they manage. Another major consideration is the scale at which these agencies must work and the available resources (money, time and staff) they have to work with at any given time. Using prescribed fire on 50 acres is very different compared to tens or even hundreds of thousands of acres that must be burned annually to maintain a healthy ecosystem.
The Southeast once was an ecosystem dominated by frequent, naturally occurring fire. Fire created a ground-level understory made up of small shrubs, bunch grasses, and broad-leafed plants that provided plenty of food and cover for wildlife. Wild turkeys and other animals and plants associated with this ecosystem adapted through eons of evolution and developed ways to cope with the natural and frequent fires. Many of the wildlife and plant species now in peril in the Southeast are ones that thrive in fire-dependent habitats – Georgia aster, Bachman’s sparrow, Northern bobwhite, gopher tortoise and red-cockaded woodpecker among many others.
The introduction of anti-fire messaging in the early 1900s led the public to believe that fire of any kind was bad, and, as a result, the use of prescribed burning dropped dramatically. More recently, concerns regarding liability, lack of training, air quality, and public perception have further limited the use of prescribed fire. Now, a majority of our forests have become overgrown and do not provide the ideal mix of habitat for wild turkeys to live and reproduce, likely leading to the observed declines previously mentioned. These conditions also have dramatically increased the risk and severity of devastating wildfires that lead to the loss of life, personal property, and wildlife habitat. Such catastrophic wildfires can also cost taxpayers millions of dollars in fire suppression efforts.
Prescribed fire is an art as much as it is a science, and it involves a complicated mix of environmental conditions that can change within minutes and certainly within the time span that a burn is conducted. Humidity, wind speed and direction, smoke dispersion, air temperature, and other parameters are constantly changing and adjustments must be made accordingly. The timing of controlled burns and how they are applied influence how habitats respond and how wild turkeys use that habitat. Seasonality (time of year), intensity (how hot), ignition type (how it is lit), frequency (how often), and scale (size) of the burns all depend on the specific property and the desired management objectives. No two burns ever behave the same, and, sometimes, there will be unintended consequences, such as areas that burn more or less than planned. This is an expected trade-off that still produces better habitat than not using prescribed fire at all.
Public and private land managers now use prescribed fire to mimic the historic, natural fire regime, while also reducing fuel loads and the risk of catastrophic wildfires. This can be a struggle given the complexities of burning and societal constraints. The NWTF is committed to working with landowners and our many public, private and corporate partners to implement burning regimes that more closely mimic historic natural conditions.
The NWTF was established as a science-based organization and continues to apply science in our decision making. Knowledge gained with new technology, experience, and research, as well as on-the-ground observations, often changes how management decisions are made. As such, landscape-level management decisions should not be based on a single research project, but rather, decisions need to be based on a full body of research over time and the measured results of implementation in the field.
The NWTF will continue to work with and support our numerous partners to ensure they are making sound management decisions and implementing active habitat management according to the best available science and current, best-management practices. Keeping in focus the best interests of wild turkeys, turkey hunters, and conservationists, alike, has always has been and will continue to be the NWTF’s priority.
Yours in conservation,
Vice President of Conservation
- Nests Under Fire: Does it Matter? Growing-season Burns and Ground-nesting Birds (https://www.fs.usda.gov/Intern
- A Hot Topic: Telemetry study gives new insights on wild turkeys and prescribed fire (https://www.nwtf.org/conservation/article/a-hot-topic)
- Burning During the Nesting Season - Desirable or Disastrous for Wild Turkeys (https://www.ncwildlife.org/Por
- Lightning-Season Burning: Friend or Foe of Breeding Birds? (http://talltimbers.org/webedit
or_images/file/Fire%20&%20Bree) ding%20Birds%20Booklet-small.p df
- Shedding some Light on Growing Season Burns (http://www.gon.com/hunting/she
- Why fire and longleaf pines are good for longbeards (https://www.southeastfarmpress
- Eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology in frequently-burned longleaf pine savannas (https://www.researchgate.net/
publication/265338206_Eastern_) wild_turkey_reproductive_ ecology_in_frequently-burned_l ongleaf_pine_savannas
- Habitat Characteristics of Eastern Wild turkey Nest and Ground-roost Sites in 2 Longleaf Pine Forests (http://www.seafwa.org/25%20Str
- Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America (http://journals.plos.org/ploso
- Time-since-fire and stand seral stage affect habitat selection of eastern wild turkeys in a managed longleaf pine ecosystem (http://www.rnr.lsu.edu/bret/Br
- Prescribed Fire Influences Habitat Selection of Female Eastern Wild Turkeys (https://www.researchgate.net/
publication/318015369_) Prescribed_Fire_Influences_ Habitat_Selection_of_Female_ Eastern_Wild_Turkeys
- Use of pine-dominated forests by female eastern wild turkeys immediately after prescribed fire (https://www.researchgate.net/
publication/317014292_Use_of_) pine-dominated_forests_by_ female_eastern_wild_turkeys_ immediately_after_prescribed_ fire
- Wild Turkey habitat use in frequently-burned pine savanna (https://pdfs.semanticscholar.
org/728f/) 1f48593b640ae729507dffdb75bd89 9f95ac.pdf
- Wild turkey nest survival and nest‐site selection in the presence of growing‐season prescribed fire (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.